Pure Red Cell Aplasia – Pure Red Cell Aplasia is a rare autoimmune disease where the immune system attacks blood-forming stem cells. There are three types of Pure Red Cell Aplasaia to include: Acquired Pure Red Cell Aplasia, Transient or Acute Self-limited PRCA and Inherited or Congenital Pure Red Cell Aplasia.
Pure Red Cell Aplasia Symptoms
Acquired Pure Red Cell Aplasia: This is a very rare condition and usually affects adults. It is characterized by an absence of red cell precursors in the marrow and a low red blood cell count. The amounts of white blood cells and platelet remain normal.
Transient or Acute Self-limited PRCA: This is the most common type of PRCA. It is identical to acquired PRCA except that, at some point, it simply goes away. Transient PRCA is usually triggered by a virus or drug. In most cases, when the virus clears, or the responsible drugs are eliminated, the PRCA will disappear. This is most dangerous to patients who already have a chronic hemolytic anemia. Patients with otherwise normal functioning bone marrow may even recover without having known they had it.
Inherited or Congenital Pure Red Cell Aplasia: Diamond-Blackfan anemia is a genetic condition usually diagnosed during the first two years of life. About half of patients also have physical malformations or mental retardation. Only several hundred cases have been reported worldwide. The severity of the disease varies by patient.